Publications & Outreach

Want to know more about the Vulcan US FFCO2 information system? The following documents will help


  1. The power and Promise of Improved Climate Data Infrastructure: a proposal for anew Greenhouse Gas Information System (Commentary in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences).
  2. On the Edge, New Technologies: The A podcast about the transformational power of new technologies with a segment on the Vulcan Project with Dr. Gurney (30 minute mark). 
  3. American Carbon: NASA Earth Observatory article on Vulcan.


  1. Gurney et al., ES&T, 2009: The is the core Vulcan version 2.0 peer-reviewed paper published in Environmental Science and Technology.
  2. Vulcan documentation - This is the detailed Vulcan version 2.2 documentation (little-changed from version 2.0). It provides a more detailed methodology than that included in the Gurney et al., 2009 paper with references to input data and algorithmic procedures
  3. Readme version 2.2 - A simple readme file to assist in using the 10 km x 10 km, hourly gridded Vulcan version 2.2 results.
  4. Parshall et al., Energy Policy, 2010 - a paper led by Lily Parshall using the Vulcan results aimed at analyzing  xxxx
  5. Gurney, Carbon Management, 2011 - An overview paper ("Observing Human CO2 Emissions") making the case for the importance of quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions with space/time detail.
  6. Zhou and Gurney, GBC, 2011 - A paper analyzing the spatial content and relationship of US fossil fuel CO2 emissions.
  7. Cragg, et al., Economic Inquiry, 2013 - a paper exploring the relationship between legislative voting on carbon mitigation and FFCO2 emissions.
  8. Mendoza, et al., Energy Policy, 2013 - A paper exploring the potential for national scale onroad FFCO2 emissions using the high-resolution Vulcan output.
  9. Basu et al., PNAS, 2020 - A paper showing results of a 14CO2 US national inversion. Key outcome related to Vulcan is the agreement (within 1.4%) on an annual basis.
  10. Gurney, et al., 2020 - Paper of record on the Vulcan version 3.0 results. Describes methods, results, and some analysis (e.g. comparison to ODIAC).
  11. Gurney et al., 2021 - Paper in Nature Communications using Vulcan as a comparative reference to 48 self-reported urban inventories. Average difference: 18.3% (SRI underestimate).
  12. Gurney et al., 2021 - Realtime US FFCO2 emissions. Paper under review but publicly available on archive. Data access here.

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